Rays of Hope Support Initiative’s (ROHSI) mission is to provide a platform to wellness by providing health awareness programs and treatment to all in need of care. $10,000 will provide

  • Training to 10 qualified health volunteers
  • Screening and medicine to at least 400 people with hypertension or diabetes
  • Education and advocacy to 5,000 people in at least five different communities


Nigeria has one of the highest rates of hypertension in the world, with studies showing rates between 30% and 45%. Hypertension accounts for about 25% of emergencies in Nigerian hospitals. Researchers recommend increased awareness and interventions for prevention and early detection of hypertension. This is particularly urgent in Oyo State. Even with early diagnosis, high cost of medication is forcing patients to seek an alternative to drugs. Some patients forego treatment altogether. Without treatment, Hypertension can lead to severe illness or early death.

There is a relationship between Hypertension and Diabetes, which is also on the rise in Nigeria. Diabetes leads to Hypertension, and Hypertension leads to increased complications from Diabetes.


Rays of Hope Support Initiative will

  • Continue raising awareness and educating about Hypertension and Diabetes in underserved communities, expanding our reach to 5,000 people in at least five different communities
  • Provide training to 10 volunteers, or “Health Champions”
  • Provide medical screening, medications, and nutritional supplements to at least 400 of those with the greatest need

Providing treatment to those with an existing condition can help reduce the rate of illness and death, while educating about proper diet and exercise will improve health and well-being through prevention.

Long-term Impact

ROHSI aims to reduce the prevalence of hypertension in Nigeria in the long-term. We will create partnerships with government health agencies and community development associations to bring awareness and treatment to more communities. We will get closer to our vision of a low prevalence of hypertension in Nigeria, but we can’t do it without your help!


Rays of Hope Support Initiative

Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria

+234 805 674 9931

Twitter: @ROHSI3

Facebook: @ROHSI3

Campaign begins June 1, 2018 at


By Malia Frey | Reviewed by Richard N. Fogoros, MD

Losing weight is hard for everyone. But weight loss tips for women over 40 need to take into account the unique hormonal changes, lifestyle adjustments, and exercise considerations that we deal with when we hit that special age.

If you’re over 40, weight loss is still possible. But you need to plan ahead, exercise smarter and eat a good diet full of key nutrients that will keep your body young and strong. Use these diet tips, meal plans and fitness routines to get and keep the body you deserve.

See Your Doctor

When you’re over 40, weight loss may play a big role in your overall well-being and your ability to age well. When you go in for your annual check-up or before you start a diet, talk to your healthcare provider. Find out if weight loss might improve your health. You may be able to decrease your risk for disease or even stop taking certain medications if you lose weight. And having that important information may help you to stay motivated when weight loss becomes challenging

Prevent Menopausal Weight Gain

Are menopausal changes affecting your weight? Many women struggle with weight loss before, during, and sometimes even long after menopause. Weight gain at this time may be related to changes in your hormones. But this is also a time when many women make changes to their daily routines that may affect their weight. For example, after the kids leave home some women are not as busy during the day with non-exercise physical activities like carrying groceries, lifting laundry baskets and other household chores. Evaluate your lifestyle to make sure that a change in your daily habits isn’t affecting your weight.

Reboot Your Confidence

Who says sex appeal fades as you age? Many women say that their 40s are the sexiest decade. Often, women experience renewed confidence, professional success and a more sultry sense of self during this decade. So why not use it to your advantage? If you’re trying to reshape your body or lose weight in your 40s, a renewed sense of confidence and sex appeal will help you reach your goals. You might think that you’ll feel better about your body after the diet, but the truth is that if you feel better about yourself before you diet, you’ll be better equipped to manage the lifestyle changes necessary for weight loss.

Set Goals for Over-40 Weight Loss

Your 40s are not the time to try fad diets for quick weight loss. You’re smarter than that. You need a plan for long-term health, well-being, weight loss and weight maintenance. To do that, set SMART goals. SMART goals are used by motivational coaches to help anyone become more successful. If you want your weight loss plan to work, you’ll set one too. It takes just 30 minutes or less to set up and it provides a roadmap for your entire weight loss journey.

Increase Your Energy

Your sleep habits, you’re eating habits, and your work habits may lead to poor sleep. It’s very hard to slim down when you’re not resting properly. To lose weight over 40, you should increase your energy using natural, healthy methods. First, make small changes to improve your sleep at night. Then during the day, steer clear of high-calorie coffee drinks and other beverages that cause weight gain and use diet-friendly methods to boost your energy instead.

Build a Balanced Workout Program

In your 20s and 30s, you may have been able to lose weight with a walking program or simply by staying more active during the day. But in your 40s, losing weight takes smarter planning. You need three types of exercise to slim down, tone up and stay healthy. Make sure you incorporate cardiovascular exercise, strength training and stretching into your weekly program. Each type of exercise provides unique weight loss benefits.

Change Your Diet

There is no single diet plan that works for everyone. But a diet plan for your 40s should be one that you can use to reach your weight loss goals and then modify and stick to for life. Evaluate your current eating style, think about your past diet history and choose a diet that fits your needs.  Evaluate commercial diet plans or create your own eating plan at home. 




lower UTI

Signs Can Vary In Women, Men, Children, And The Elderly

By Jerry Kennard | Reviewed by Richard N. Fogoros, MD

Anyone who has ever had a urinary tract infection (UTI) knows full well how frustrating and uncomfortable they can be. Even a mild case can cause pain when urinating, an increased urge to urinate, and blood or pus in the urine. If the infection moves from the bladder to the kidneys, the condition can get worse, triggering severe back pain, nausea, vomiting, and, in rare cases, kidney damage.

And, it’s not just adults who can be affected. Newborns and children can also get UTIs, and those occurring in the elderly can sometimes be life-threatening. By knowing the signs and symptoms of a UTI, you can seek treatment and avoid many of complications of this all-too-common infection.

Frequent Symptoms

The symptoms of a urinary tract infection are largely defined by their location in the urinary system. Broadly speaking, there are two types of UTI:

A lower urinary tract infection is one that occurs in the bladder or urethra (the tube through which urine exits the body). It is commonly referred to as a bladder infection.

An upper urinary tract infection involves the kidneys and ureters (the duct through which urine passes from the kidneys to the bladder). An infection of the kidneys is also referred to as pyelonephritis.

Lower Urinary Tract (Bladder Infection)

A lower urinary tract infection typically occurs when bacteria enter the urethra and cause an infection in the bladder.

When symptoms appear, they often start with a dull ache or discomfort in the pelvis or urethra. Usually, within hours, the UTI will manifest with characteristic symptoms, including:

Pain or burning during urination (dysuria)

An increased urge to urinate (urinary urgency)

The need to get up at night to urinate (nocturia)

Inability to hold your urine (urinary incontinence)

Passing frequent, small amounts of urine

Foul-smelling urine

Cloudy urine caused by pus (pyuria)

Bloody urine (hematuria)

Pus discharge from the urethra

Lower abdominal discomfort

Pelvic pain in women

Low-grade fever


Upper Urinary Tract (Pyelonephritis)

A bladder infection that has migrated to the kidneys is usually considered serious and in need of urgent medical care. Pyelonephritis can cause systemic (all-body) symptoms that are not only more overt but frequently debilitating.

Signs of pyelonephritis may include:

A high fever (over 100.4 degrees)

Body chills

Rigors (shivering and sweating accompanied by a rise in temperature)

Nausea or vomiting

Flank pain (pain that’s usually deep and high in the back or sides, though it can be present in the upper abdomen)

Special Populations

Babies, young children, and the elderly are also commonly affected by UTIs and often in vastly different ways. The main challenge in the very young and very old is that the classic signs are frequently either missing or misattributed to other causes.

With new-borns especially, the only clues you may have are a persistent fussiness or crying accompanied by odd-smelling urine and the refusal to eat.

This is why it is important to always to discuss your baby’s bowel and urinary habits at every doctor visit, however mild or incidental the changes may seem.

In contrast, the signs of a UTIs in toddlers and younger children will be more characteristic and may include dysuria, urinary urgency, daytime incontinence (enuresis), or the rubbing or grabbing of the genitals.

A UTI in the elderly will usually not have any of the traditional symptoms seen in other adults. These may include urinary incontinence and mental confusion (caused by the bacterial penetration of the blood-brain barrier). If your loved one is older, the main clues to watch out for are sudden changes in behavior and bladder control, especially if accompanied by lower abdominal pain or strong-smelling urine.


UTI complications often occur as result of an untreated or undertreated infection. The risk is also high in people with an underlying kidney disorder, diabetes, or diseases that cause immune impairment (such as HIV).

Complications of a urinary tract infection include:

Recurrent UTIs occurring at least twice in six months or four times in a year, most commonly in women

Urethral narrowing (stricture) in men with recurrent infections

Increased risk of preterm birth and low birth weight in pregnancy

Permanent kidney damage

Sepsis (a potentially life-threatening, whole-body inflammatory response caused by a severe infection)

In Children

Because a urinary tract infection in new-borns will often have few, if any, of the classic signs of a UTI, a child may only become symptomatic when sepsis (also referred to as urosepsis) develops. Sepsis is always considered a medical emergency.

Go to an emergency room or call 911 if your baby develops some or all of the following symptoms:

Yellowing of the eyes and skin (jaundice)

High Fever

Decreased tone (floppiness)


Cloudy or bloody urine

Irregular breathing

Pale pallor or even a bluish skin tone (cyanosis)

A bulging of the soft spot on the back of the head triggered by the development of meningitis

In the Elderly

Since UTIs are frequently missed in the elderly, the infection may only become apparent when urosepsis starts to affect the brain and other vital organs.

Symptoms include of this dangerous complication include:

An abnormally rapid heart rate (tachycardia)

High fever or hypothermia (body temperatures below 95 degrees)

Difficulty breathing or shortness of breath (dyspnea)

Profuse sweating

Sudden extreme anxiety

Severe back, abdominal, or pelvic pain

Dementia-like symptoms triggered by the development of brain inflammation (encephalitis)

If left untreated, sepsis can lead to septic shock, organ failure, and death.

When to See a Doctor

While milder UTIs will often go away on their own without treatment, you shouldn’t avoid seeing a doctor if the symptoms persist for more than a couple of days.

With that being said, if you develop signs of a kidney infection, including flank pain, nausea, or vomiting, you need to see a doctor immediately.

If you are pregnant, you should never take a chance with UTIs, especially if you have diabetes, HIV, or have had previous infections. Even mild symptoms should be looked at, treated, and monitored to ensure that the infection is fully cleared.

Without exception, any symptoms of suggestive of sepsis should be treated as a medical emergency. This is especially true in babies or the elderly.


Heppner, H.; Yapan, F.; and Wiedermann, A. “Urosepsis in Geriatric Patients.” Aktuelle Urol. 2016;47(1):54-9. DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-106184.

Robinson, J.; Findlay, J.; Lang, M. et al. “Urinary tract infections in infants and children: Diagnosis and management.” Paediatr Child Health. 2014; 19(6):315-19.

Schwartz, B. (2014) “Urinary Tract Infections.” In: Levinson, W. eds. Review of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, 13e. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education.

Solomon, C. “Urinary Tract Infections in Older Men.” N Engl J Med. 2016; 374:562-571. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMcp1503950.




If you’re stressed, whether by your job or by something more personal, the first step to feeling better is to identify the cause.

The most unhelpful thing you can do is turn to something unhealthy to help you cope, such as smoking or drinking.

“In life, there’s always a solution to a problem,” says Professor Cary Cooper, an occupational health expert at the University of Lancaster. “Not taking control of the situation and doing nothing will only make your problems worse.”

He says the keys to good stress management are building emotional strength, being in control of your situation, having a good social network and adopting a positive outlook.

What you can do to address stress

These are Professor Cooper’s top 10 stress-busting suggestions:

Be active

Exercise won’t make your stress disappear, but it will reduce some of the emotional intensity that you’re feeling, clearing your thoughts and letting you to deal with your problems more calmly.

For more advice, read how being active helps mental wellbeing.

Get started with exercise.

Take control

There’s a solution to any problem. “If you remain passive, thinking, ‘I can’t do anything about my problem’, your stress will get worse,” says Professor Cooper. “That feeling of loss of control is one of the main causes of stress and lack of wellbeing.”

The act of taking control is in itself empowering, and it’s a crucial part of finding a solution that satisfies you and not someone else.

Read tips on how to manage your time.

Connect with people

A good support network of colleagues, friends and family can ease your work troubles and help you see things in a different way.

“If you don’t connect with people, you won’t have support to turn to when you need help,” says Professor Cooper.

The activities we do with friends help us relax. We often have a good laugh with them, which is an excellent stress reliever.

“Talking things through with a friend will also help you find solutions to your problems,” says Professor Cooper.

Read about some other ways relationships help our wellbeing.

Have some ‘me time’

Here in the UK, we work the longest hours in Europe, meaning we often don’t spend enough time doing things we really enjoy.

“We all need to take some time for socialising, relaxation or exercise,” says Professor Cooper.

He recommends setting aside a couple of nights a week for some quality “me time” away from work. “By earmarking those two days, it means you won’t be tempted to work overtime,” he says.

Challenge yourself

Setting yourself goals and challenges, whether at work or outside, such as learning a new language or a new sport, helps to build confidence. This will help you deal with stress.

“By continuing to learn, you become more emotionally resilient as a person,” says Professor Cooper. “It arms you with knowledge and makes you want to do things rather than be passive, such as watching TV all the time.”

Avoid unhealthy habits

Don’t rely on alcohol, smoking, and caffeine as your ways of coping. “Men more than women are likely to do this. We call this avoidance behaviour,” says Professor Cooper. “Women are better at seeking support from their social circle.”

Over the long term, these crutches won’t solve your problems. They’ll just create new ones. “It’s like putting your head in the sand,” says Professor Cooper. “It might provide temporary relief, but it won’t make the problems disappear. You need to tackle the cause of your stress.”

Help other people

Professor Cooper says evidence shows that people who help others, through activities such as volunteering or community work, become more resilient.

“Helping people who are often in situations worse than yours will help you put your problems into perspective,” says Professor Cooper. “The more you give, the more resilient and happy you feel.”

If you don’t have time to volunteer, try to do someone a favour every day. It can be something as small as helping someone to cross the road or going on a coffee run for colleagues.

See more on giving for mental wellbeing.

Work smarter, not harder

Working smarter means prioritising your work, concentrating on the tasks that will make a real difference.

“Leave the least important tasks to last,” says Cooper. “Accept that your in-tray will always be full. Don’t expect it to be empty at the end of the day.”

Read some tips on how to manage your time better.

Try to be positive

Look for the positives in life, and things for which you’re grateful. “People don’t always appreciate what they have,” says Professor Cooper. “Try to be glass half full instead of glass half empty,” he says.

Try writing down three things that went well, or for which you’re grateful, at the end of every day.

Listen to an audio guide on beating unhelpful thinking.

Accept the things you can’t change

Changing a difficult situation isn’t always possible. Try to concentrate on the things you do have control over.

“If your company is going under and is making redundancies, for example, there’s nothing you can do about it,” says Professor Cooper.

“In a situation like that, you need to focus on the things that you can control, such as looking for a new job.”




When you have diabetes, a primary goal is to keep it under control. Here are some simple things you can do each day to help achieve that goal.


Regular physical activity helps you feel better. It also improves your sensitivity to insulin, which means it works better in your body. Because it does, your blood sugar levels can become more stable.

Exercise can also help ease stress.

If you aren’t active now, start slow. Then build up how much exercise you get over time. Shoot for 4 to 7 periods of activity each week. Try to make each period last for at least 30 minutes. And you don’t have to work out at the gym to be active. Take the stairs instead of an elevator, or park at the far end of the lot. Both add exercise to your daily routine.

Have a realistic goal and make a plan. What exercises will you do, and when will you do them? For example, you might plan to walk 30 minutes most days on your lunch break.

Change your activities often enough so you don’t get bored. You can do aerobic activities like walking or jogging. And resistance exercises like working out with weights offer another option. Whatever you do, don’t forget to stretch before and after each workout session.

It’s important to realize that exercise lowers your blood sugar. Talk to your doctor about whether you need to adjust your meds or insulin dose to keep your levels high enough.

Eat a Well-Balanced Diet

Having diabetes shouldn’t keep you from enjoying a bunch of different foods.

Try to fill half your plate with non-starchy vegetables such as:





Salad greens



Also, make sure to get some of these:



Citrus fruits

Lean meat

Low-fat or non-fat dairy products


Poultry or fish

Sweet potatoes

You can also get protein from vegetarian things like tofu.

Stick to whole-grain foods. If you eat cereals, check the ingredients and make sure whole grain is first on the list.

Examples of whole grains include:

Brown rice

Bulgur (cracked wheat)





Whole oats oatmeal

Whole Wheat

Eat three meals a day, and try to space them out evenly. You should also shoot to have the same amount of carbs at each meal.

In general, less-processed food is better. That’s because it has a lower glycaemic index, which means it may have less of an effect on your blood sugar. For example, oatmeal from whole oats has a lower glycaemic index than instant oatmeal.

If you have type 2 diabetes and follow a healthy diet and exercise routine, you could lose weight and improve your diabetes. One study found long-term weight loss through diet and exercise could lower your chances of having a stroke and dementia.

Reduce Stress

If you’re stressed, you may exercise less, drink more, and not watch your diabetes as closely.

Stress can raise your blood sugar and make you less sensitive to insulin. When you’re stressed, your body adopts a “fight or flight” response. That means it will make sure you have enough sugar and fat available for energy.

Studies of people with type 1 diabetes found blood sugar levels go up for most people under mental stress and down for others. If you have type 2 diabetes and you’re feeling pressure, your glucose will go up.

If something has you bothered, try to make changes that can help you relax. You might exercise, spend time with friends, meditate, or replace negative thoughts with positive ones. Do whatever work for you.

Support groups, counselling, or therapy can help, too.

Quit Smoking

Kick the habit. It’ll give you better control of your blood sugar levels.

If you smoke, you’re also more likely to have serious health problems as well as a higher chance for complications from diabetes. Those can include:

Heart and kidney disease

Poor blood flow to the legs and feet, which could lead to infections, ulcers and amputation of your toes or feet

Retinopathy, an eye disease that causes blindness

Peripheral neuropathy, nerve damage in the arms and legs that causes weakness, numbness, pain, and poor coordination

Cut Back on Alcohol

If you’re on insulin or oral diabetes meds like sulfonylureas or meglitinides, drinking alcohol can drop blood sugar to dangerous levels. When you drink, your liver has to work to remove the alcohol from your blood instead of regulating your blood sugar.

Drunkenness and low blood sugar can also cause dizziness, disorientation, and sleepiness. You could confuse the symptoms of too much alcohol and low blood sugar. A woman should have no more than one drink a day. For men, the limit is two drinks per day. One drink is 12 ounces of beer, a 5-ounce glass of wine, or an ounce and a half of liquor like vodka. With mixed drinks, choose no-calorie mixers like club soda or diet soda.

Try switching to a light beer or wine spritzer. You can also sip more slowly or switch to water or another calorie-free drink.

If you cut back on the drinks, you may eat better. Alcohol can lower your willpower to resist overeating.

Take Notes

Keeping a detailed daily log can help you track what affects your glucose levels. That log can include:

Insulin and other medications

Food, especially carbs

Physical activity



After a week or so, see if you notice any patterns.

If you’re trying to lose weight, write down everything you eat or drink for a week or two, including portion size. That’ll give you a clear picture of where you stand and what changes you can make.

If you drink alcohol, check your blood sugar before you drink, while you drink, before you go to bed, and the following day. Alcohol lowers blood sugar for up to 24 hours after you finish your last drink.

WebMD Medical Reference

Reviewed by Brunilda Nazario, MD on December 12, 2017

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