LDL: THE ‘BAD’ CHOLESTEROL
Reviewed by James Beckerman, MD, FACC
If you have heart disease or you just want to keep your ticker healthy, you’ve probably heard the saying already: “Watch your cholesterol!” The type that puts your heart at risk is LDL, the “bad” cholesterol.
It collects in the walls of your blood vessels, where it can cause blockages. Higher levels of LDL raise your chances of a heart attack. That’s because of a sudden blood clot that forms there
Get a simple blood test to check your LDL levels. If they’re high, healthy foods and medicine can help you get them down.
What Is LDL?
Cholesterol isn’t all bad. It’s an essential fat the cells in your body need.
Some cholesterol comes from the food you eat, and your liver makes some. It can’t dissolve in blood, so proteins carry it where it needs to go. These carriers are called “lipoproteins.”
LDL is a microscopic blob made up of an outer rim of lipoprotein and a cholesterol center. Its full name is “low-density lipoprotein.” It’s bad because it becomes part of plaque, the stuff that can clog arteries and make heart attacks and strokes more likely.
What LDL Cholesterol Test Results Mean
Heart attacks are unpredictable, but higher levels of LDL raise your odds of heart disease. Until recently, guidelines for cutting those odds put an emphasis on lowering this “bad” cholesterol to a specific number.
Nowadays, you and your doctor work together to develop a personal strategy to lower your LDL by a certain percentage. It’s based on your how likely it is you’ll have heart disease or a stroke. To figure it out, doctors use a calculator to estimate your chance of those problems in the next 10 years.
The calculator considers several things, including:
Your cholesterol level
Your blood pressure
Whether you smoke
If you take blood pressure medicine
All of these things affect your chance of having a heart problem. Other risks include:
A history of heart disease in your family
Your doctor will set up a plan of lifestyle changes or medication that can lower both your cholesterol and overall risk.
What You Can Do
Healthy foods and exercise can cut your LDL levels. Eat foods low in saturated fat, cholesterol, and simple carbs. (Simple carbs include foods like sugar, white bread, and white crackers.) You can lower your numbers even more if you add fibre and plant sterols (margarine or nuts) to your diet.
Regular exercise, the kind that gets your heart pumping, also lowers your levels.
If healthy foods and exercise aren’t enough, your doctor may suggest medications. Some drugs, like statins, help block your body from making cholesterol. Other medicines lower the amount of cholesterol your body gets from the food you eat.
There are also drugs that you take a shot rather than as a pill. These meds block a protein that interferes with the way your liver removes LDL from your blood. They’re recommended for people who can’t use statins or who have a severe form of high cholesterol.
Remember, many other things affect your chances of getting heart disease. Smoking, diabetes, high blood pressure, obesity, and lack of exercise also raise the risk. It’s important to lower your LDL, but don’t ignore these other health issues.
Sources: WebMD Medical Reference. Check our website at www.rohsi.org and at www.facebook.com/rohsi3