Here are some images from our Outreach Programme on October 21st, 2018.
Here are some photos from our Community Health Outreach event on Noven
Perhaps the biggest topic in health and wellness these days is sugar and how to cut back on consuming it. For ages, the average adult would add a spoonful of sugar here and there to food— it never seemed like a big deal. But over time, food manufacturers started adding sugar to just about everything in the grocery store, even foods that you don’t think of as sweet, like crackers and spaghetti sauce.
Today it’s clear that sugar is linked to various illnesses and conditions, and it is likely a major culprit connected to the rise in obesity and weight gain in this country. The information below will give some background on the sugar debate and suggest ways in which you can cut it out for good.
Does Sugar Make You Fat?
Obesity has been a hot topic in recent years, and with good reason. Roughly 38 percent of adults over the age of 19 in the U.S. are obese. What’s more staggering is that more than 70 percent of adults over the age of 19 are overweight or obese, suggesting that most people in this country have weight problems.
Just think about these statistics a bit: seven out of every 10 adults are overweight or obese. From a public health standpoint, effective weight loss programs are important, and it seems that sugar may play a role. Let’s take a look at how sugar is associated with weight gain.
Sugar’s Calorie Content
One of the first things with any body weight management program is to consider how much you eat and to cut out whatever is unnecessary. Sugar is a major culprit in weight gain since it contains calories, but not much else in the way of vitamins, minerals, or anything else that’s good for you. You can find a detailed description of the amount of calories in our calories in sugar guide, but overall, if you eat more than what you need, you will store the extra energy as fat. Some weight loss programs suggest that eating fat is the path to gaining fat, but in reality, it does not matter what nutrient you over consume; the more you eat, the more you gain.
Excess Sugar May Lead to Obesity
Considering the difference between how much sugar we should be eating and how much we’re actually eating, that excess sugar consumption might be one of the key factors in the rise in obesity levels in this country. If the recommended amount of sugar is at most 150 calories each day and the average adult is consuming more than double this value, perhaps the increase in overweight or obese adults is caused by this excess.
If a pound of fat equates to roughly 3,500 calories, and men consume 180 calories (at least) in excess and women consume 230 calories (at least) in excess, this could add up over the years. If you do the math on the extra amount men eat, 180 calories of sugar in excess from what is recommended each day, for a total of 365 days over an entire year, and this amounts to about 19 pounds of fat per year. Do the same math for women and this equates to 24 pounds of fat added each year. Doing the math, it seems clear how sugar can contribute to obesity across the nation.
Cutting Sugar to Lose Weight
One of the first rules in any weight loss program is to burn more calories than what you eat. This method suggests that for every 3,500 calorie deficit, you lose roughly one pound of fat. This is not an exact science, but it is a good way to estimate weight loss. In contrast, if you eat more than what your body needs, then you will gain weight. Figuring out the balance between the energy in and the energy out can be a challenge, but cutting sugar may be one of the best ways to reduce your excessive caloric intake.
If you use the figure of 82 grams of sugar consumed by the average adult each day, it should be no surprise that you could lose some serious weight from sugar alone. Consider this: if you eat a standard 2,000 calorie diet (men or women) each day and you immediately cut all sources of sugar from your usual food and drink, you would reduce your caloric load by 330 calories each day, assuming you eat the average of 82 grams of sugar each day. Reducing your caloric load by 330 calories in sugar each day would translate to about 34 pounds of fat loss each year, or close to three pounds per month.
If you are like many adults out there and you feel your diet is impeccable and that sugar is not an issue, consider this: one medium apple contains about 19 grams of sugar, a banana has 12 grams, one orange has 17 grams, and 1 cup of grapes has 15 grams. You can see that sugar is everywhere, even if you have a healthy diet. It is easy to hit the average 82 grams of sugar each day from fruits alone, but considering a plethora of other foods have sugar in them, it would be easy to consume this much without even touching a candy bar.
Cutting out Sugar Completely Can Be Challenging
One of the biggest issues in any weight loss plan is avoiding things that your brain wants. This is where many adults have issues when it comes to cutting sugar from the diet. The brain has a strong desire to obtain sugar as a way to boost dopamine (known as the happiness hormone), which can be a major sign of sugar addiction. Sugar also provides a quick burst of energy that also floods the brain with compounds that make you feel euphoric. This craving for euphoria is hard to defeat, and it is one of the biggest challenges people have when they’re trying to cut out sugar for good.
9 Effective Ways to Cut Sugar From Your Diet
Now that you have some information on how sugar impacts your weight management, some of the names that it goes by, and the difference between natural and added sugars, you will want to learn about some effective ways to cut sugar out for good. Consider the following tips to aid in your journey to successfully avoid sugar in your daily eating habits.
- Substitute sugary beverages for water.
It may taste boring when you first make this switch, but beverages are the primary source of added sugars in the adult diet. Consider drinking your coffee black without sweetener or sugars and avoid all forms of soda, including ones with artificial sweeteners.
- Be mindful of sugar substitutes.
Avoiding sugar is something that adults on diets aim to do, and many switch to artificial sweeteners as an alternative. While they may be calorie-free, artificial sweeteners and sugar substitutes can be up to 600 times sweeter than regular sugar, which means your brain thinks you are consuming enormous amounts of sugar at one time. This strategy often leads to you having intense sugar cravings throughout the day.
- Avoid fruit juices.
An orange has plenty of sugar, and a cup of orange juice has the juice of five oranges in there—so it has five times the amount of sugar. And that’s if you make the juice yourself. Orange juice found in cartons in the grocery store—even the ones that say they’re not from concentrate— are highly processed, and many brands have added sugar.
- Limit fruit.
If you are serious about cutting sugar from your diet, you should pay attention to how much sugar is in the fruit you’re eating. Fruit can be healthy for you, but you need to limit your intake to 2-3 pieces at most a day—and count that as part of your sugar consumption.
- Avoid jams, jellies, honey, or other preserves.
American breakfasts are often sweet, and jams, jellies, and other options are a source of sugar that you may not think about.
- Eat plain Greek yogurt.
You may be surprised that yogurt is a common source of added sugar—sometimes up to 30 or 40 grams in a serving! Choose plain Greek yogurt, which only has the natural sugars in dairy and no added sugars. Make sure to read the food label to double-check.
- Consider Sweet Defeat.
One amazing way to cut back on sugar and to fight some of the associated sugar cravings is to consider getting a little help. Sweet Defeat is a product that helps fight sugar cravings so that you can effectively eliminate it from your diet. It comes as a lozenge and it contains only five ingredients: gymnema, zinc, mint, sorbitol, and spirulina. The gymnema and zinc work together to temporarily block the sweet taste receptors in the mouth, so you can’t taste sweetness. The lozenge works in a few seconds, and it is clinically proven to stop cravings. Consider taking a look at Sweet Defeat if you are serious about quitting sugar.
- Get used to reading grocery labels.
Even if the ingredient list on your favourite food items doesn’t specifically list “sugar” as an ingredient, there’s still a chance that it could have a high sugar content under the veil of a different name. There are at least 60 other names for sugar out there, with the most common being high fructose corn syrup.
- Know the difference between natural and added sugar.
Not all sugar is created equal and it’s important to know the difference between natural vs added sugar. While it may be difficult to avoid all forms of natural sugar, avoiding added sugars that are refined or processed can be a realistic goal to strive for.
Helpful Weight Loss Tips
If you have ever been on a diet plan only to see it work briefly and then go south from there, then you should consider a lifestyle change to make your plan more effective. Consider the tips below as some of the most effective ways to boost your weight loss journey so that your previous frustrations turn into successes.
Adjust your exercise routine.
One way to boost your weight loss success is to adjust your exercise routine. Many adults hit the gym, perform endless amount of cardio exercise day after day, only to see minimal results. There are a couple of reasons for this. First, your cardio intensity may not be high enough. Consider high-intensity interval training (HIIT) for better results. Second, add a resistance training program—lifting weights, for example—which will help build muscle. Muscle burns more energy than fat, so this will help with weight loss. Changing your workouts to include high intensity interval training as well as resistance training is a great way to boost your metabolism and add lean muscle mass.
Avoid long periods of sitting.
One of the biggest issues with weight loss is that adults go all-out at the gym, only to lose all of the benefits directly afterwards. Studies have shown that sitting for long periods of time can lead to weight gain, suggesting that changing this habit may help with n your weight loss goals. Avoid sitting for longer than 30-60 minutes at a time throughout the day for best results. Taking standing breaks can help to circulate your blood, and it increases your heart rate and metabolism just enough to where your body is not in continuous fat storage mode.
Be mindful of alcohol.
Another factor that adults should watch when attempting to lose weight is alcohol consumption. Alcohol may have some health benefits, but consuming it often can lead to increased fat production as well as inflammation. Consider cutting alcohol from your diet any time you are looking to lose weight and only drink amounts that current health guidelines suggest you consume.
Make a Habit of Walking.
One effective way to control your body weight is to take a brisk walk after each meal. Research has shown that brisk walking after a meal for about 15-45 minutes can lead to an improvement in overall glycaemic control in older adults. An improvement in glycaemic control could cause better usage of insulin, which could lead to a reduction of fat in your body. Consider making a brisk walk a habit after each meal and you may see great benefits in both weight and in mood.
Sugar consumption is linked to a number of health concerns. Perhaps the most concerning one is obesity. Obesity is a highly prevalent issue in the U.S.: seven out of every 10 adults are overweight or obese. And sugar plays a major role in this statistic.
The average American consumes twice as much sugar as what’s recommended. That excess sugar adds up to about 330 calories each day, which means the average adult could be gaining close to 20 pounds a year simply from eating too much sugar. Sugar consumption is likely a major element contributing to obesity levels in this country.
Consider finding healthy ways to cut sugar from your life to help you lose weight. If you find that the easy tips listed above on how to cut back on sugar isn’t enough, and if you are finding it challenging to fight sugar cravings, then consider getting help from Sweet Defeat to boost your success.
In 2015 9.4 % of the American population had diabetes, according to the American Diabetes Association. That is 30 million people with diabetes and the organisation also reported that 84.1 million Americans had prediabetes, meaning they have elevated blood glucose levels, but not high enough to be considered diabetic. 1.5 million Americans are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes every year and diabetes is the 7th leading cause of death in America. Type 2 diabetics make up the majority of people with diabetes. Furthermore, an estimated 415 million people worldwide had been diagnosed with diabetes.
The signs of having diabetes can be various and the consequences can plentiful. Diabetes is an illness that can be debilitating, lower your life quality, and even have fatal consequences as a result of the additional diseases and conditions you can develop if your diabetes is not managed properly – but did you know, that diabetes be managed through your diet?
You Are What You Eat
The food you consume and the fluids you ingest impact your body in numerous ways. Sugar of one kind or another are present in most foods, in varying amounts. This sugar, be it sucrose, fructose, or galactose, needs to be separated from the food in order to be broken down and used by the body. This happens with the help of insulin. In short, insulin is a pancreatic hormone that transports sugar from food into the body’s cells to be used for fuel when needed. The body’s resistance to insulin is measured by its ability to remove glucose (sugar) from the blood and thereby maintaining stable blood glucose levels.
Diabetes is a medical condition that occurs when your body is unable to produce enough insulin to regulate the blood glucose levels, or if your body cannot use its produced insulin efficiently enough. This causes the sugar to stay in the blood stream instead of entering the cells, thus resulting in high blood glucose levels.
There are three types of diabetes: Type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is a genetic, auto-immune disease where the body turns on itself, instructing the immune system to falsely deactivate the pancreas rendering it unable to produce insulin. This type of diabetes usually runs in the family and cannot be prevented or modified with diet or exercise, although a healthy diet is recommended to help prevent additional illnesses that often occur in the wake of diabetes. People with type 1 diabetes depend on daily insulin injections or an insulin pump to help their body turn glucose into energy.
Type 2 diabetes is usually caused by lifestyle choices and circumstances. While you are definitely at a greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes if there is a family history of diabetes, the risk greatly increases if you are overweight or obese, physically inactive, or aging. These risk factors mean that where there used to be a prevalence of older people getting type 2 diabetes due to aging, now there is a surge in diabetes in children and teenagers due to poor dietary choices and an inactive lifestyle.
Certain ethnic groups, such as Pacific Islanders, Indians, Native Americans, and Mexican Americans are also at a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
Type 2 diabetes is a progressive illness and the treatment is dependent on the stage at which it is diagnosed. Symptoms include pronounced dizziness, an involuntary increase in weight, a constant feeling of hunger and thirst, frequent urination, headaches, and mood swings. While there is no cure for diabetes, preventative measures can be taken if you are diagnosed as prediabetic, and there are multiple steps you can take to manage it after being diagnosed with type 2 diabetes.
The last type of diabetes is gestational diabetes, which can occur during pregnancy. Pregnant women are especially vulnerable to the condition if they have a family history of diabetes, are overweight, if they are over the age of thirty, or if they have experienced gestational diabetes in previous pregnancies. The condition rarely requires insulin treatment and can usually be managed with diet. Most often gestational diabetes disappears again after birth.
While a healthy, active lifestyle is also important in order to live a healthy life with type 1 diabetes and gestational diabetes, this article will for all intents and purposes focus on type 2 diabetes. During the course of this article you will learn what diabetes is and how you can tweak your diet to help you manage it and increase your chances of avoiding diabetes complications such as glaucoma, cardiovascular disease, and strokes.
Nutrients for the Body
In order to understand diabetes, it is important to understand how different nutrients affect our bodies. All food consists of one or more macronutrients and a variety of micronutrients. Macronutrients are the major nutritional players such as carbohydrates, fatty acids, and protein, whereas micronutrients are vitamins and minerals.
The human body needs both macro- and micronutrients on a daily basis to thrive. The different nutrients serve different purposes within the body, but they each provide your body with the fuel it needs to perform optimally. Let’s break it down, starting with carbohydrates (the remaining nutrients will be covered later in the article), which is one of the key components in diabetes management. Understanding how carbohydrates is digested and absorbed and thereby affecting your body is paramount to understanding diabetes and learning how to manage it through your diet.
Carbohydrates are molecular structures comprised of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. They serve many key functions in the human body including controlling blood glucose levels, aid in cell metabolism and regulate insulin metabolism, and they serve as a primary source of energy.
Carbs are found in such foods as fruit, vegetables, beans, legumes, bread, oats and pasta, and as mentioned they help regulate your blood glucose levels and the glycogen levels in the muscles and give you energy. This happens as you ingest carbs and the body starts breaking it down into glucose, which is then stored as glycogen in the liver and muscles where from it is released as energy when needed.
Carbs can be either simple or complex depending on how complex their molecular structure is:
A monosaccharide is the simplest form of carbs. This basic sugar structure forms the basis for more complex carbs and can by itself be found as glucose in molasses, fructose in various fruits, and galactose in yoghurt for instance. This is a fast, easily digested source of energy.
Comprised of glucose and fructose bound together a disaccharide is also a simple carb. Disaccharides are found in foods containing sucrose (white sugar) or lactose such as dairy products. Disaccharides are also easily digested and provides a quick burst of energy.
Generally speaking, mono- and disaccharides can be found in sweets, juices, honey, corn syrup.
Oligosaccharides and polysaccharides are more complex types of carbohydrates, consisting of three to ten strains of monosaccharides. They are found in fruits, grains and vegetables, and starchy foods. These complex carbs also contain fibre as opposed to the simple carbs. Fibre is a non-digestible complex carb essential in maintaining stable blood glucose levels and keeping your gut and colon healthy. They can be soluble or insoluble.
Carbohydrate Digestion and Absorption
The main function of a carbohydrate is to provide your body with energy. No matter what type of carbohydrate you ingest the digestive process begins in the mouth. Your saliva contains an enzyme known as salivary amylase, which begins breaking down the carbohydrates as you are chewing them up, mixing them with saliva. The food is then swallowed and transported to the stomach and on through to the small intestine known as the duodenum.
Once nestled in the duodenum, a substance called pancreatic amylase is released by the pancreas, hence the name. This pancreatic enzyme proceeds to break down polysaccharides into disaccharides, which is then broken down even further by enzymes produced by the duodenum itself. These enzymes, lactase, sucrase and maltase break down the disaccharides into monosaccharides readily absorbed by the body. The actual absorption happens in the duodenum and the energy is stored in the liver and muscle tissue.
At this point most of the carbohydrates from your meal has been broken down, absorbed by your body and stores accordingly. There are, however, some carbohydrates which cannot be broken down the duodenum and these are instead transported to the large intestine, the colon. Here the ones that can be broken down into smaller pieces are done so by the intestinal bacteria that flourishes in our colon. Some nutrients are, however, non-digestible and are therefore excreted through bowel movements. This is true for insoluble fibres, for instance, which serve the main purpose of keeping our bowels healthy by absorbing water to aid in a smooth digestion and regular bowel movements.
Blood Glucose, Glycogen, and Insulin
Having covered the various types of carbohydrates as well as fibre it is time to look at why exactly that is relevant when addressing the issue of type 2 diabetes.
Here is what we know so far: The body converts carbohydrates into glucose to be used for energy. The glucose levels in the blood are regulated by insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas. Type 2 diabetes is a condition where the person has constantly high blood glucose levels because the pancreas is unable to produce sufficient amounts of insulin.
After you ingest a meal there will naturally be a spike in your blood glucose levels as insulin is released to direct the glucose into the liver and muscle cells for storage, thereby preventing your blood glucose levels from rising too much. When the glucose is stored in the liver and muscle cells it changes into a readily available form of energy called glycogen. Then, when needed, glycogen is converted back to glucose and released back into the bloodstream. Your blood glucose levels are called glycemia and when the body is unable to produce sufficient insulin to regulate it, you might get hyperglycaemia, meaning you have unusually high blood glucose levels.
So, what is the fuss, you may ask. Well, as explained, hyperglycaemia means that your blood glucose levels are too high. It is a condition that develops over a few days or a week, and it can have quite severe consequences if not treated.
Headaches and dizziness
Blurred vision and fatigue
These are the early signs of hyperglycaemia and if treated appropriately it can be brought back under control. If you are diabetic, refer to your doctor’s instructions and how to administer your insulin. If you have not been diagnosed with diabetes, consult your doctor and inform him of your symptoms. If these early signs are not treated, hyperglycaemia will develop further and can cause the build-up of ketones in your blood and urine and can lead to ketoacidosis.
Later symptoms include:
Breath that smells fruity
Confusion and weakness
If hyperglycaemia goes untreated for long periods of time, such as if a person’s diabetic condition is not managed properly, it can have consequences such as cataract, blindness, bone and joint problems, and trouble healing wounds and sores. If you are experiencing any of these symptoms in a manner that concerns you, please see your general health provider and talk to them about your concerns. They will be able to do a blood test to determine if you have diabetes.
You can also experience hypoglycaemia, a condition where your blood glucose levels drop below average, causing dizziness, nausea, trembling, hunger, paleness, and sweating. If you measure your blood glucose levels and they are below 4mmol/L it is important to act on it. Hypoglycaemia can be caused by strenuous exercise, not eating enough carbohydrates in a meal, injecting too much insulin, or drinking a large amount of alcohol. If acted upon quickly, it can usually be remedied swiftly by ingesting a sugary snack, followed by a meal with slow acting carbohydrates once your blood glucose levels have stabilized.
The Glycaemic Index (GI)
As it has been established, different types of carbohydrates are digested by the body at different speeds. Fast-acting carbs such as sugary snacks and beverages, white bread and potatoes, raise your blood glucose levels at a high speed, while slow-acting carbs such as soy products, lentils, grains, porridge and fruit are digested slower and therefore helps keep your blood glucose levels stable. A scale has been established to help differentiate between foods that elevate your blood glucose levels and foods that help keep your levels stabile. This is called The Glycaemic Index (GI).
The GI is a sliding way of rating foods based on how they affect your blood glucose levels over a period of time; usually a period of two hours. The scale goes from 0-100 and food is measured against the reference foods glucose or white bread, which have a GI score of 100. The scale compares the different foods to the reference food, measuring it gram for gram. A food item with a GI score less than 55 is considered low GI. A medium GI score is between 55 and 70 and a high GI score is 70 and above, ranking the foods on this end of the spectre the as having the most impact on your blood glucose levels.
There are a number of factors that can affect a foods GI score. These include things such as texture, size, ripeness, fibre and fat content, and the way a food is processed or cooked. To make matters more complicated, most meals are usually made up of various foods with different GI scores, which means that they affect each other. Mixing different foods can actually mean that a food with a high GI score can end up with a low GI score when partnered with the right type of food.
Below is a short (and by no means complete) list of foods with low GI scores.
Foods with a low GI score:
Dairy products (reduced or low-fat products are recommended for people with diabetes)
Porridge and natural muesli.
Wholegrain bread and grains in general, such as barley and bulgur
Pasta and noodles
Legumes (beans, lentils, peas)
Vegetables and fruit
Managing Your Diabetes
So, let us get down to brass tacks: How do you successfully manage and live with a diabetes diagnosis?
When you have type 2 diabetes your pancreas is usually still working to some extent, as opposed to type 1 where the immune system has erroneously, but effectively, killed off most, if not all, of the insulin producing pancreatic cells. This means that type 2 diabetes is a progressive condition where the body will grow more and more insulin resistant and while you might be able to successfully manage it and function with a healthy diet and exercise, you may require insulin injections as the diabetes progresses and the body’s ability to regulate its insulin production fails additionally. Therefore, it is paramount that you adopt a somewhat healthy diet to help your body manage its blood glucose levels.
A Healthy Diet
A healthy dietary routine is recommended for everyone regardless of whether or not they have diabetes, but it is especially important for diabetics. Now, that does not mean that you can’t have your favourite treats once in a while, it just means that you have to put a bit more aware of what you eat.
The type of diet you choose will depend on your personal preferences and your lifestyle. In essence it is all about balance. A well-balanced diet is one consisting mainly of quality macro- and micronutrients from wholefoods such as wholegrain bread, vegetables, fruit, nuts, dairy, beans, legumes, meat and fish, but it also leaves a little room for the things you like to indulge in, such as chocolate for instance.
What is important is that you form realistic dietary habits that can be sustained long-term and incorporated into your daily routine. You should aim to eat three main meals and two snacks a day to keep your blood glucose levels stabile and you should hydrate with water frequently. We will have a look at a few ways to structure your meals throughout the day and a couple of dietary plans that are recommended for diabetics, but before diving into that, let’s have a look at the other macronutrients, as well as some of the important micronutrients.
Protein is an important macronutrient, playing a role in all cellular processes in the body. Proteins are made up of amino acids. There are 22 amino acids, which can be utilised by the human body. Of these 22 amino acids, the body can only synthesise 13, leaving the remaining 9. These 9 amino acids are known as essential amino acids and can only be found in food.
Proteins serve a lot of different functions in the body. Their main function is building, maintaining and restoring muscle tissue and cells. While protein can actually be found in most foods, quality sources are preferred. These include various beans, tofu, fish, lean meats, poultry, eggs and dairy products. The recommended daily intake is 0.8 grams per kilogram body weight. Protein is filling and helps keep you satiated longer.
Fatty acids are hydrocarbon chains with a tail of carboxylic acid groups. They are hydrophobic, which is why fat and water do not mix. Fatty acids serve several important functions in the human body, including providing vital fuel for the body’s cell and serving as a storage unit for energy within the adipose tissue.
There are different types of fats. Some are beneficial for the body and some are harmful. When you are diabetic, you have a higher risk of heart problems, which is typically associated with a high blood cholesterol count. Foods rich in saturated fats raise your blood cholesterol level, making you more vulnerable to heart problems. Instead, choosing healthy fats can actually help lower your risk of having a stroke.
Monounsaturated fats: A general rule of thumb is that unsaturated fats are good for your body, because they help lower your LDL cholesterol, which is the type of cholesterol that increases your risk of heart problems. Monounsaturated fats are liquid at room temperature but turn solid when put in the fridge for instance. Foods rich in monounsaturated fats include avocado, olive oil and olives, various nuts, safflower oil, and herring.
Polyunsaturated fats: Like monounsaturated fats, polyunsaturated fats are also good for your body and your heart. Try to make these types of fats the majority of fats in your diet. polyunsaturated fats are also heart healthy, helps lower your LDL cholesterol and provides the body with healthy and important vitamins and omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. Foods high in polyunsaturated fats include tofu, sunflower oil, walnuts, chia and flax seeds, and salmon.
Saturated fat and trans fatty acids: Try to keep these types of fat out of your diet as far as possible. The nature of their molecular structure means that they raise your blood cholesterol level, thereby increasing your risk of heart disease. Foods to avoid includes butter, high-fat dairy and meat products like bacon, hot dogs and sausages, highly processed foods such as chips and baked goods, lard, and palm oil. You may think that avoiding these items is easy, but look at the ingredients list next time you go shopping and you might be surprised to learn how prevalent these types of foods really are.
Let’s have a look at those small, but important micronutrients. Micronutrients are a blanket term for all the various vitamins and minerals that are present in food. If you eat a wholesome, healthy varied diet based on whole foods and plants, you will most likely get all your required micronutrients, with a couple of exceptions. If you want to be sure you are getting everything you need, a multi-vitamin is a good choice to supplement your diet. A multivitamin cover pretty much all your bases and tops of a well-rounded diet.
Vitamin D is a very important vitamin, especially if you live in a country where the sun does not shine a lot. Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin, meaning it is stored in the body’s fatty tissue and you can build up a small reserve in the body. Your body synthesizes the vitamin in the liver and kidney from an inactive form of the vitamin that comes from sunlight and is found in various foods. Vitamin D is actually a hormone and it is essential for a healthy, thriving body as it controls the calcium levels in the body and is needed to absorb calcium from the food. It is vital for maintaining strong bones and muscles, and for an overall good health.
In the summertime you will probably get enough vitamin D if you spend time outside with any exposed skin. Remember, however, to be sun safe. Because vitamin D is stored in the body it can only be absorbed in small doses. Spending an extended time in the sun will therefore not increase the amount of vitamin D absorbed, but it will increase your risk of melanoma from exposure to harmful ultraviolet rays. In the winter it is recommended that you take a supplement. Foods high in vitamin D include fatty fish such as salmon, mackerel, and sardines and it can also be found in eggs, mushrooms, and caviar.
Calcium is important in maintaining healthy bones and is best absorbed when eating with a source of vitamin D. Try, as far as possible, to eat foods containing the two vitamins, together. Calcium is found in dairy products, almonds, tofu, oats, and green leafy vegetables.
Iron is another important micronutrient one and while actually being a mineral, and not a vitamin, iron is important because it is the main part of haemoglobin. Haemoglobin is the part of the red blood cells that obtains the oxygen in the lungs and transports it around the body, and a sufficient iron supply is important to ensure that this process happens correctly. If you are lacking in iron your body will lack enough healthy, red blood cells and they will have a hard time transporting the amount of oxygen required by the body to function properly. This will leave you fatigued and disoriented. Especially women are in danger of becoming iron deficient and it is recommended that they take a supplement.
Iron can be found in meat, spinach and other leafy, green vegetables, tofu, and fortified cereals. It is best absorbed when consumed with a source of vitamin C. If you are supplementing with iron tablets, try washing them down with a glass of water with lemon juice squeezed in.
Vitamin C is also known as ascorbic acid and like mentioned above, this vitamin helps the absorption of iron and strengthens the immune system. It is a water-soluble vitamin, meaning it is not stored in the body and needs to be replenished regularly. Vitamin C can be found in lemons and limes, kiwi fruits, berries, leafy green vegetables, tomatoes and potatoes.
B vitamins are a group of collection of micronutrients that all have important functions in the body. The group consists of eight different vitamins:
Thiamin (B1) helps convert glucose into energy and serves an important role in a functioning nervous system. Good sources of thiamin include sesame seeds, legumes, nuts, and yeast.
Riboflavin (B2) is vital for healthy skin and a strong vision. Sources include dairy products such as cottage cheese and yoghurt, egg white, lean meats, wholegrain bread and cereals.
Niacin (B3) assists in energy conversion and aids in maintaining healthy nervous and digestive systems. Niacin can be found where there is protein present. It is also found in nuts, mushrooms, and most type of meats.
Pantothenic acid (B5) also plays a part in energy conversion as well as being a crucial aid in producing red blood cells and steroid hormones. B5 is found in foods such as legumes, liver, kidney, eggs, and peanuts.
Pyridoxine B6 is an important vitamin because besides assisting in protein and carbohydrate metabolism, it also influences brain development, and the immune system. It is abundant in meat, fish and shellfish, nuts, and leafy vegetables.
Biotin (B7) is also used for energy metabolism, as well as fat and glycogen synthesis, and amino acid metabolism. It can be found in egg yolks, peanuts, liver, and chicken.
Folic acid (B9 or folate) is instrumental in foetal development (pregnant women should take a supplement or be highly aware of their folate intake through diet), cell growth, and the forming of red blood cells. Folic acid is the synthetic form available through supplements, while the organic form known as ‘folate’ can be found in legumes, seeds, leafy green vegetables, poultry, eggs, and cereals.
Cyanocobalamin (B12) is especially important and contributes to the forming of new red blood cells, maintaining myelin around cells, and energy conversion. If you are vegan, vegetarian or eat a plant-based diet, it is important that you take a daily B12 supplement as the vitamin is only found in animal products.
Most of these vitamins are water-soluble (with the exception of B12 and folic acid), so just like vitamin C they need to be replenished on a daily basis because they are only stored in the body for a short amount of time.
For many people a bit of alcohol is a way to unwind after a long day. They might enjoy a glass of wine while cooking dinner, a beer before bedtime, or a night out with their friends, but where does alcohol figure in the diet of someone living with diabetes? The answer is not a straight-forward as you may think. According to the American Diabetes Association people with diabetes can indeed enjoy a drink every now and then, but they should be aware of the risks. Here are a few guidelines to ensure that you can safely enjoy a drink or two:
The recommended alcohol intake is no more than one drink per day for women and two drinks per day for men.
Alcohol blocks the liver’s ability to turn glycogen into glucose to release into the bloodstream, making it hard for your body to try and self-regulate if your blood glucose levels get too low.
If you are taking any medications be sure to check with your doctor so you know how those medications interact with alcohol and with your diabetes.
Get a diabetes ID that lets people around you know that you have diabetes in case you become hypoglycaemic and need assistance.
Plan ahead. If you know you are going to be drinking later, have a meal consisting of slow-acting carbohydrates, lean protein, and healthy fats. Alcohol can lower your blood glucose levels and cause hypoglycaemia and the risk increases if you drink on an empty stomach.
If you are going to be drinking fun mixed drinks, aim for diet versions of the mixers as sugar-laden drinks will raise your blood glucose levels.
Don’t drink and drive.
Because alcohol consumption can cause hypoglycaemia up till 24 hours after drinking, you should always check your blood glucose levels before you drink, while you are drinking, before you go to bed, once or twice throughout the night, and frequently the following day. Generally, you should speak to your health care provider about how alcohol can affect you and what precautions you should take if you are insulin-dependent or take other medications.
It’s important to stay hydrated and while you should definitely indulge in water throughout the day, it can be a bit tricky to figure out what other beverages are okay to consume. In general, try to stay away from sugar-filled drinks such as regular sodas, energy drinks, juices, etc. They all contain copious amounts of sugary carbohydrates, which will raise your blood glucose levels. Instead, opt for unsweetened teas and coffee, low-fat milk, and water, or try a delicious matcha tea with abundant health benefits.
Water should be the main part of your daily fluid intake, but if you are getting a bit bored with plain old water, try putting lemon or lime in it, or maybe a few herb leaves such as mint.
Now, let’s have a look at how you can structure your meals to ensure stable blood glucose levels throughout the day, while keeping you full and nourished. When constructing your meal plan, try opting for the mono- and polyunsaturated fats that you can find in for instance fish, avocado, walnuts, chia and flax seeds, and avoid the saturated and trans fatty acids found in heavily processed products and deep-fried foods. Go for those slow-acting, low GI carbohydrates for blood glucose stability and choose good quality, lean meats, fish and shellfish. Drink water throughout the day to stay hydrated.
Eating Patterns and Meal Plans
Generally, you should try to aim for natural, whole foods, meaning foods that have not been altered from their natural state or processed in any way. Alternatively, go for the foods with the least amount of processing. Think vegetables, fruit, beans and legumes, and go for foods with a low GI score to avoid unstable blood glucose levels. Whole foods do not contain additives like sodium, fats or preservatives and they contain natural vitamins and minerals.
Choose lean meats such as fish or chicken filets instead of processed cold cuts, which can be full of preservatives, fats, sodium, and flavouring agents, and choose fresh fruits, berries and yoghurt and nuts for a breakfast smoothie instead of processed and sugar filled cereals.
Constructing a physical plan with your meals for the week is generally a good idea. Sit down, get out a pen and paper and write down what you (and your family) are going to eat the coming week. It helps make things manageable in a busy everyday life and ensures that you eat a varied diet. Here are nine simple guidelines to keep in mind when constructing a meal plan:
Know your GI scores. Look up the GI scores for some of the foods you eat on a regular basis and know where to look to find information on a new food when you need it. You will find the most comprehensive guide on the Glycaemic Index Foundation’s website. Here you can also find extensive information about managing diabetes as well as examples of various meal plans.
Make your foundation plant-based. Choosing to base your diet primarily on plants may not be such a bad idea when measured on a number of issues. Studies show that people who eat a plant-based diet have lower blood pressure and cholesterol levels; they have an easier time maintaining a steady weight (something that is also important for diabetics) and they are able to keep their blood glucose levels more stable than people who does not eat a plant-based diet.
Note that a plant-based diet does not necessarily exclude meats and dairy products, but should you choose to exclude meat and/or dairy products from your diet there will be tips and meal ideas further down.
Choose quality sources of protein. Supplement your plant-based diet with good protein sources from white meat and fish. White meat includes poultry and is generally more lean than dark meat, making it low-fat and low-calorie. Fish also comes with a myriad of health benefits, such as being rich in poly-unsaturated fatty acids and high in vitamin D. Aim at making fish a part of your meal plan at least 2-3 times a week.
Cut out the simple carbs as much as possible. As mentioned previously, fast, sugary carbohydrates will raise your blood glucose levels fast and leave them unstable. Try to avoid sugary and processed foods.
Eliminate saturated fats and trans-fats. It’s been established that diabetics have a greater risk of developing heart disease and suffering strokes. As saturated fats increase your blood cholesterol and trans-fat have been linked to heart disease and cancer, cut those out of your diet for a more heart healthy lifestyle. These fatty acids can be found in such foods as pastries and baked goods and fried foods of all kinds.
Eat breakfast. It is true what they say about breakfast being the most important meal of the day. What you choose to consume in the morning will be what will fuel you for the first part of the day and it is the meal that breaks the fast of the night. A healthy breakfast that starts the day out right with stable blood glucose levels contains healthy fats, protein and complex carbs. An example could be smashed avocado on wholegrain bread with a boiled egg on the side, hold the salt. Don’t forget to drink water first thing in the morning.
Fill up on beans. Whether you are trying to decrease your intake of meat or just want to switch up your diet a bit and try something new, beans contain lots of good protein and fibres, and they are tasty and filling. Kidney beans, chickpeas, butter beans, whatever your preference, cook them up and try them in a meatless tortilla or toss up a five-bean salad for lunch.
Go easy on the salt. Too much salt can cause hypertension, which is something you want to avoid when you have diabetes. Try other ways to season your food such as various herbs and spices.
Stay hydrated. Starting your day with a large glass of water is a great idea. It kickstarts your metabolism, which has been laying low while you were sleeping, and it gives you a fresh start to the day. It is important to keep hydrated by drinking water regularly throughout the day, so aim to drink eight to ten glasses of water daily. Try it with a few slices of lemon or lime for a fresh twist.
Sometimes it can be a bit hard to pinpoint exactly what constitutes a “healthy, varied diet good for diabetics”, but luckily the American Diabetes Association has a few recommendations for what to eat. Here are two examples of healthy diets recommended for people with diabetes.
The Mediterranean Diet
With its abundance of fruit and vegetables and its focus on mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids from fish and olive oil, this way of eating has been hailed one the healthiest around and it is a great way to eat if you are diabetic. As the name suggests, this way of eating and viewing food stems from the countries in the Mediterranean and it is a diet that focuses on choosing whole foods over processed foods.
The diet is rich in vegetables, fruit, nuts and seeds, legumes, whole grains, and a wide variety of seafood, and olive oil as well as different variations of olives themselves are added to the meals in abundance.
Herbs and spices are generously sprinkled in the cooking and food is usually drizzled with healthy quantities of extra virgin olive oil and eaten with whole grain bread and a good quality feta. Meat, including both red meat and poultry, eggs, and dairy is used scarcely, and sugary drinks, refined oils, and processed foods rarely ever eaten.
The key to mastering this way of eating and turning it into a healthy, delicious way of managing your diabetes, is thinking in terms of whole, single ingredient foods. This is a recommended way of eating for diabetics because it is nutritious and healthy, it is high in mono- and polyunsaturated fats and low in sugar, sodium, and saturated and trans fats. Due to its abundance of healthy fats from olive oil, avocados, nuts and fish it is a heart healthy diet that lowers LDL cholesterol in the blood, thereby lowering the risk of heart problems and cardiovascular disease.
While this diet is healthy and great for people with diabetes there is, however, something you need to be mindful of. Adopting a Mediterranean way of eating comes with great health benefits, but it can also come with a high calorie count. Olives, olive oil, fatty fish, feta, and so on are all high-calorie foods, so be mindful of your intake to avoid gaining unwanted pounds.
A Healthy Diet for Diabetic Vegans or Vegetarians
Many Americans are going either vegetarian or vegan for a myriad of reasons, including making an effort to have a lower carbon footprint, taking a stand against conventional farming, or simply for health reasons. If you are living a plant-based lifestyle and foregoing the meat and maybe even dairy products as well, you may be wondering if that is a healthy lifestyle for someone with diabetes.
According to the American Diabetes Association a vegetarian or vegan diet is good choice for someone with diabetes as it is usually abundant in fruit and vegetables, and thereby full of vitamins and minerals. The base foods are usually rich in carbohydrates, but if you fill up on those slow-acting, low GI carbs, it can be a really nutritious and healthy way to eat. Choose beans, grains, legumes, tofu, and all the greens you can eat and enjoy a heart healthy, fibre-rich, inexpensive way of eating that will lower your cholesterol levels and keep your blood glucose levels steady.
The Diabetes Plate Method
Besides the two eating patterns suggested above, there are a whole range of other diets that might be suitable for diabetics. Whichever way you choose to fulfil your dietary needs, you can structure your meals after the Diabetes Plate Method for a quick, easy-to-remember way of eating healthy.
The idea is that you divide your plate in three: Half your plate is filled with non-starchy vegetables such as asparagus, green beans, cabbage, celery, cauliflower and mushroom. One quarter is filled with low GI grains and starchy foods, for instance bulgur, barley, brown rice or whole meal pasta. The last quarter is filled with lean protein, a food group that includes skinless chicken or turkey, various beans, fish and shellfish, tofu, nuts, and nut butters.
Meal Plan Examples
So, now that you have this vast knowledge of nutrition and how you can manage your blood glucose levels with the foods you choose, let’s put it into a meal plan. Below are two examples on what an average day might look like.
Mediterranean Style Meal Plan
Breakfast: Green smoothie breakfast bowl
Try a quick, easy-to-make, delicious smoothie bowl for a scrumptious morning tea to start your day off. Enjoy with a tall glass of water and maybe a cup of green tea.
Morning snack: One banana and a handful of almonds and walnuts will help tide you over until lunch.
Lunch: Grilled shrimp pitas
This is another quick treat that will satisfy your umami-craving palate and your hungry stomach by loading you up with delicious feta cheese, succulent grilled shrimps, and cooling gazpacho soup.
Afternoon snack: For most people the afternoon is where the cravings start to set in. Try to stay ahead of the curve by snacking on cucumber sticks, sliced carrots and celery sticks dipped in a yummy avocado-cucumber dip. Add a couple of garlic-chili soaked olives for a small dose of healthy fats.
Dinner: Greek salad pizza
Eating healthy does not have to be boring, and this delicious Greek style pizza is sure to satisfy your senses. Top with smoked salmon and serve with homemade tzatziki.
If you are craving something sweet at the end of the evening, try cutting up an apple and a couple of carrots and enjoying them with a bit of tzatziki or avocado-cucumber dip.
Vegetarian Style Meal Plan
Breakfast: Try a healthy smoothie with almond, blueberries and flax seeds for a nutritious, fulfilling breakfast treat packed with Omega-3 fatty acids and fibre.
Morning snack: A handful of mixed nuts, an apple, or a banana and maybe half an avocado with cottage cheese.
Lunch: This bibb and bean burrito bowl is a fun way to eat beans. Beans are full of protein and nutrients and they help manage your blood glucose levels.
Afternoon snack: Make your own delicious hummus and enjoy it with a selection of sliced vegetables.
Dinner: These yummy falafels will have your mouth watering while you’re cooking. Try them in a wrap with lettuce, tomatoes, avocado, purple onion, cucumber and salsa, or dip them in hummus.
By Craig Weber, MD
Restrict These Foods If You Have Hypertension
The topic of dietary recommendations for high blood pressure is an interesting one. On one hand, it is exceedingly complex and has been the continued focus of research for at least three decades. On the other hand, the vast majority of dietary recommendations for high blood pressure are very similar to healthy diet recommendations in general.
But regardless of the latest research, there are certain things you should avoid if you have hypertension. So if you’re following a pressure diet to help manage your condition, be sure to watch out for these three potential spikers.
People with high blood pressure should not drink alcohol. While studies have demonstrated that low levels of alcohol intake can have protective effects on the heart and can possibly reduce the risk of developing high blood pressure, research has also clearly demonstrated that consuming alcohol in the setting of existing high blood pressure is unhealthy.
Alcohol directly raises blood pressure, and further acts to damage the walls of blood vessels, which can elevate the blood pressure further and make it more difficult to treat, while simultaneously increasing the risk of complications.
If you don’t want to take the step of cutting out all alcohol, the American Heart Association and National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases say to drink alcohol only in moderation, no more than 1 to 2 drinks per day (one for most women, two for most men). A drink is one 12 oz. beer, 4 oz. of wine, 1.5 oz. of 80-proof spirits or 1 oz. of 100-proof spirits.
In some people, eating too much salt can make high blood pressure much worse. In others, the same amount of salt consumption may have no effect. The problem is that no doctor or scientist can tell which is the case for an individual patient until it is too late.
This, combined with the fact that too much salt is bad for the heart regardless of blood pressure status, means that reduced sodium is a strongly recommended part of a healthy diet. These recommendations are especially important in the setting of secondary high blood pressure due to kidney problems.
While it can be difficult at first to eat a low-sodium diet, you will quickly readjust your taste buds when you stick with it for a couple of weeks. Preparing your own food at home from whole ingredients rather than eating processed food or eating at restaurants is an easy way to control the sodium in your food.
Saturated fats and trans fats are bad for both the heart and blood vessels. Because the circulatory system is already under a lot of stress in the setting of high blood pressure, extra strain can be devastating.
The balanced high blood pressure diet should include sparse amounts of saturated and trans-fats (red meat, fast food), and moderate amounts of other fats (olives, canola oil), avoiding tropical oils. Instead of red meat, enjoy fish, poultry, seeds, nuts, and beans. You can still have the occasional meal of the leanest cuts of red meat. Enjoy fat-free or low-fat dairy products.
When you are buying products at the grocery store, look for the Heart-Check mark from the American Heart Association. This mark on the label shows the product meets the AHA criteria for saturated fat, trans fat, and sodium for a single serving.
DASH Eating Plan
If you want a more structured way to dive into a diet for hypertension, look into the DASH eating plan, which stands for Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension.
In most of the world, red meat is considered a delicacy; something only to be eaten on the most special of occasions. However, in America, red meat is a common staple in many homes and restaurants. While a steak can be a tasty treat, consuming it frequently can cause long-term health issues. Red meat is dense in calories, fat, and cholesterol. Many people have adopted the lifestyle of “meatless Mondays”, where they do not consume any meat. This is an easy way to dip your toes into reducing your meat, especially red meat intake. Losing weight is just one of the many health benefits cutting out red meat can do for you. Here are 10 things that happen to your body when you stop eating red meat.
Cutting out red meat can reduce your waistline because of the dense calories red meat has. A three-ounce serving of beef can be around 170 calories while a portion of beans is about 100 calories and a serving of tofu is 70 calories. Even though the calorie difference between beans, tofu, and red meat ranges from 70-100 calories, it adds up over an extended period of time. Besides, it is quite rare to ever be served the recommended portion size at home or in a restaurant. This means that if you are eating out, or even eating at home but not watching your portion size, you are getting more than 170 calories. Other sources of protein are often easier to digest and do not cause as much indigestion as red meat.
Balance your PH Levels
A healthy body is a balanced body. We can balance the PH levels in our bodies through what we eat and drink. Red meat, flour, and soda are all very high in acidity levels, which throw off our natural PH level. An imbalance in PH levels in the body can result in bone density loss and muscle density loss. For women alone, an imbalance in PH levels can cause yeast infections and other bacterial infections that are uncomfortable or embarrassing. High acidity in the body is a breeding ground for disease and illness; especially if stress or lack of sleep is a common theme in your life. Eating more fruits and vegetables can balance out the acidity levels of red meat and other high acidity foods.
Red meat is difficult for the body to digest and many people complain of bloating, upset stomach, constipation, or gas after eating a hearty steak or a sandwich made with red meat. The result of less uncomfortable bloating is due to the fact that you have likely replaced red meat on your plate with more vegetables or legumes. Reduction of bloat is not totally exclusive to cutting out red meat; it’s incorporating more fibre-rich alternative proteins. These fibrous and hearty alternatives create good bacteria in your stomach.
If your skin has been feeling dull and tired, maybe it’s time to rethink what you are putting into your body. A diet rich in fresh fruits and vegetables is the best remedy for clear skin. Fruits and vegetables are rich in vitamins that fight free radicals like vitamins A, C, and E. A slow digestive tract, like when you are experiencing constipation, can result in dull skin. If you are looking for a red meat substitute, fish is an excellent source of protein and vitamins that you need to look and feel your best. Fish is rich in Omega 3’s and Omega 6 fatty acids. Reducing your red meat intake also positively impacts your liver and kidneys. These two organs are responsible for clearing out any impurities and toxins in your body.
Lowering your cholesterol can be tough especially if you are still regularly consuming heavy amounts of red meat. Since red meat is high in saturated fats, which have been linked to raising cholesterol levels, you might want to rethink that Sunday steak you love. Even though saturated fats can benefit you, like the kind in avocados, it’s still important to remember that you should only get 7% of your daily calories from fat. The difference between eating an avocado and eating red meat is that an avocado is rich in potassium and other vitamins. In conclusion, red meat is high in protein, but difficult to digest and puts a strain on your body and organs.
Reduce Your Risk of Serious Disease
Red meat is high in saturated fat and certain cuts contain more than others. A diet high in saturated fats causes obesity, diabetes, and an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. In addition, heavy red meat consumption increases cholesterol levels. This excess of cholesterol that lines the artery walls is the number one cause of heart attack. When the body consumes carnitine through red meat a compound called Trimethylamine-N-oxid is released. This compound negatively impacts how the body metabolizes cholesterol. Furthermore, new research in Alzheimer studies has begun to examine a link between Alzheimer’s and red meat consumption.
While steak may have always been the typical “hungry man” meal, eating red meat has actually been shown to raise estrogen levels in the body for men and women. Any sort of hormonal imbalance will negatively impact the body and mind causing all sorts of other issues. Because the body needs more time to digest red meat, your body sends out signals to go into relax mode or sleep mode. As a result, you might feel sleepy after a meat-filled meal. Most people immediately notice the increased energy level once they reduce or completely cut red meat out of their life.
Reduce Your Risk for Cancer
In certain studies, it has been found that red meat is one of the main links to cancers like colon or bowel cancer. People who eat 50 grams of red meat or more a day are 18% more likely to develop bowel cancer. As mentioned before, many people have complained of constipation or poor digestion after consuming meat. Another study that looked at 29 different individuals who consumed red meat frequently had a 28% increase of developing colon cancer. Those with a genetic predisposition to bowel and colon cancers should be especially wary of their red meat consumption. When meat is cooked several different compounds are released, including nitrates, which have been linked to certain cancers.
Save the Earth
Cows use a lot of natural resources like land, water, and grains. Experts estimate that average American will consume 270 pounds of meat every year. Most countries only consume about 4 pounds of meat per person each year. About 59 million tons of cattle and buffalo are produced annually. This massive production of cattle and other agricultural animals like sheep and goats has been shown to be the cause of 51% of Global greenhouse emissions. You might not think that your small life change, like cutting out meat, can make a big impact, but small changes lead to big changes. Not only is reducing or eliminating red meat from your diet good for you and your body, but it’s also good for the Earth and everyone who lives here.
Red meat is high in protein; it does not contain the same vitamins and minerals as other alternative protein sources. One of the main missing vitamins and minerals that red meat eaters are often deficient in is magnesium. Magnesium improves heart health, regulates cholesterol and insulin, provides better absorption of calcium, improves sleep, and promotes liver health. Supplementing magnesium with a daily vitamin supplement can help reduce or eliminate a deficiency. Always remember that it’s important to know about what you are eating is eating. Cattle graze on grass and much of the soil today is low in magnesium; because of this, you are not able to get the magnesium your body needs to function well.
An Overview of High Blood Pressure
High blood pressure is a condition with serious health consequences that affects up to 80 million American adults. When detected and treated early, however, it can reduce the risk of heart attack, stroke, and kidney disease.
What Is Blood Pressure?
Blood pressure is the outward force that blood exerts on artery walls. Arteries are the blood vessels that carry blood and oxygen from the lungs to all of the organs and tissues of the body.
Arteries are composed of muscle and flexible, elastic connective tissue that stretches to accommodate the force of blood flow generated by the heart. And the pumping action of the heart is what allows blood to travel through these arteries.
Blood pressure is expressed in two numbers. The top number, systolic blood pressure, reflects the force generated by the contractions of the heart. The bottom number, the diastolic blood pressure, refers to the pressure of blood against the walls of the arteries when the heart is resting between contractions.
After the age of 20, all adults should begin to monitor their blood pressure at their regular healthcare visits. If you are older than 40 or have risk factors for high blood pressure, you should have your blood pressure checked in both arms at least annually. It’s important to use the correct size blood pressure cuff, which is why it may not be adequate to check your blood pressure in an automatic machine at the pharmacy or grocery store.
Normal blood pressure is considered to be less than 120/80 mm Hg. With 24-hour monitoring or frequent home blood pressure monitoring, daytime normal blood pressure is defined as an average blood pressure less than 135/85 mm Hg.
If your numbers are higher than this, it does not mean you have high blood pressure. Blood pressure can change in response to exercise, stress, medication, illness, and even the time of day. It’s important to take several readings over time in order to make an appropriate diagnosis.
Most adults with high blood pressure have primary hypertension, previously called “essential” hypertension. This simply means that the elevation in blood pressure is not due to any other cause. Primary hypertension gradually develops over several years. Unless you monitor it, you may never even be aware that you are experiencing a problem that could lead to significant organ damage.
Secondary hypertension refers to hypertension that is caused by another condition or medication. In most cases, secondary hypertension occurs suddenly and may cause greater elevation in blood pressure than primary hypertension. Thyroid disorders, kidney disease, obstructive sleep apnea, alcohol abuse, illegal drugs, and tumours of the adrenal gland are some of the causes of secondary hypertension.
There are a variety of factors that can increase your risk of high blood pressure. Some risk factors cannot be modified but others can be reduced with changes in diet and lifestyle. Risks that can’t be modified include age, family history, and race. For example:
After the age of 45, men are more likely to develop high blood pressure.
In women, the risk increases after the age of 65.
African Americans are at greater risk of hypertension which tends to develop earlier and cause more serious complications.
Modifiable risk factors include:
- Being overweight
- A sedentary lifestyle
- Tobacco use
- A high sodium or low potassium diet
- Excessive alcohol intake
- Lack of vitamin D
- Stress can also increase blood pressure temporarily and, over time, lead to chronic hypertension.
Although children are at lower risk of developing essential hypertension, they can develop high blood pressure as a result of other conditions. A child’s blood pressure should be measured at each annual check-up and compared to other children of the same age group.
Blood pressure readings can fall into one of five categories:
Prehypertension. If your systolic blood pressure is between 120-139 mm Hg or if your diastolic blood pressure reading is between 80 and 89 mm Hg, you may have prehypertension. Prehypertension, like high blood pressure, carries an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and typically worsens over time. Treatment includes non-pharmacological measures, such as weight reduction, increased physical activity, avoiding excess alcohol, and restricting salt intake.
Stage I hypertension. This refers to a systolic blood pressure of 140 mm Hg to 159 mm Hg or a diastolic blood pressure of 90 to 99 mm Hg. If only one of these values is elevated, then the higher value determines the severity of hypertension. This will lead to determination of the appropriate treatment.
Isolated Systolic/diastolic hypertension. Patients with a systolic blood pressure greater than 140 mm Hg and a diastolic pressure of less than 90 mm Hg are considered to have isolated systolic hypertension. Those with a diastolic pressure greater than or equal to 90 mm Hg but with a systolic pressure less than 140 mm Hg are considered to have isolated diastolic hypertension. The systolic blood pressure is the best predictor of risk in individuals over the age of 60. Studies show that there are significant benefits to treating blood pressure, particularly in patients with mild hypertension. Current recommendations suggest that blood pressure medication be initiated in patients with stage I hypertension, although it should be started earlier in people who have heart disease, diabetes, or chronic kidney disease.
Stage II hypertension. This refers to more hypertension, with a systolic pressure of 160 mm Hg or greater or a diastolic pressure of 100 mm Hg or greater. Stage II hypertension may initially require more than one medication for treatment.
Malignant hypertension. This refers to extremely high blood pressures, over 180 mm Hg systolic or 120 mm Hg diastolic, that develop quickly and produces end-organ damage. Malignant hypertension is a condition that requires immediate medical care. This condition is also known as hypertensive urgency or hypertensive emergency. Symptoms may occur as a result of organ damage, including confusion or mental status changes, blurred vision, seizures, shortness of breath, swelling, and chest pain due to angina, heart attack, or aneurysm.
The United States Preventive Services Task Force recommends ambulatory blood pressure measurement for accurate diagnosis of hypertension. Although you may have elevated blood pressure when measured in your doctor’s office, this can be the result of “white coat hypertension.” Screening by your healthcare provider may also miss “masked hypertension.” 12- and 24-hour average blood pressures using ambulatory blood pressure monitoring are often significantly different from readings taken in a clinic or hospital setting and result in fewer patients requiring treatment, with significantly fewer patients requiring treatment as a result. Other patients may have elevated blood pressure averages discovered with ambulatory monitoring that place them at risk for stroke and cardiovascular disease even when the readings obtained in a healthcare setting are normal.
If you are diagnosed with hypertension, your physician or healthcare provider may order laboratory tests to determine whether or not there is a secondary cause, such as a thyroid abnormality or abnormality of the adrenal gland. Other blood tests will measure electrolyte levels, creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen to determine if your kidneys are involved.
Urinalysis is another test often used to diagnose kidney damage as a result of blood pressure and to rule out kidney disorders that can be a secondary cause. Lipid profiles measure your cholesterol levels and are used to assess your risk of cardiovascular diseases like heart attack and stroke. Imaging studies are used to identify possible tumours of the adrenal glands or damage to the kidneys.
If you are diagnosed with hypertension, you will also need an eye examination. An examination with an ophthalmoscope can determine the effect your blood pressure has had on the blood vessels in the eye and whether or not your retina has sustained damage.
In addition to an electrocardiogram (ECG) to evaluate possible heart damage, an echocardiogram may be used to see if your heart has become enlarged or if you have other cardiac problems related to hypertension, like blood clots or heart valve damage. Doppler ultrasound examination can be used to check the blood flow through the arteries to determine if they have narrowed, thus contributing to high blood pressure.
The initial treatment for hypertension includes changes in lifestyle and diet to eliminate or reduce contributory factors like obesity or a high sodium diet. Smoking cessation and reduction of alcohol use—one drink a day for women and two drinks a day for men—are important steps for the reduction of blood pressure.
Your doctor will probably recommend regular aerobic exercise which has a beneficial effect on blood pressure. Evidence shows that brisk walking for at least 30 minutes daily several times a week is beneficial for blood pressure reduction.
There are also a number of different medication classes available for the treatment of hypertension. The JNC 8 recommendations for treatment of blood pressure are based on evidence from multiple studies in many different populations. People with stage II hypertension may need initial treatment with two medications or a combination drug.
Follow-up is important. If your blood pressure goal has not been achieved after a month of treatment, your healthcare provider may increase your dose or add a different class of medication. After you reach your blood pressure goal, you must continue to monitor your response to treatment and development of any other conditions in order to prevent the progression of problems.
- Heart attack
- Heart failure
- Kidney failure
- Damage to blood vessels
- Cognitive and memory problems
- Eye damage and vision loss
- Metabolic syndrome
The damage is cumulative over time. High blood pressure is rarely associated with symptoms, so it is often left untreated or overlooked until permanent and devastating organ damage has occurred. When blood pressure is increased, the walls of the arteries may become injured or stretched. Damage to the blood vessels can create weak regions that give rise to aneurysms or rupture.
Damage to the heart muscle can also cause atrial fibrillation over time. Atrial fibrillation is an irregular heart rate that puts you at risk for stroke. High blood pressure can also tear the inner layer of the arteries, allowing the buildup of scar tissue that attracts cholesterol debris and platelets (blood cells that form clots). Cholesterol build-up in damaged blood vessels is called a plaque. These plaques cause a narrowing of the arteries, which results in more work for the heart to pump adequate blood through the body.
Plaque can rupture under high pressure. This causes platelets to adhere and form a clot that can break off and travel throughout blood circulation, blocking oxygenated blood from reaching critical tissues. Additionally, these clots may break off and travel to other parts of the body, blocking blood flow and causing heart attacks or stroke. Clot formation also narrows the artery, making the heart work harder to pump blood with oxygen throughout the body.
Damage to the arteries from high blood pressure, including scarring and cholesterol build-up, results in a stiffening of the arteries. This causes the heart to work harder to push blood throughout the body. The heart is a muscle, and over time, it will become damaged and floppy as a result of high blood pressure. The chambers of the heart will enlarge and the muscular fibers will not be able to contract adequately to compensate, resulting in heart failure.
A Word From Verywell
Hypertension is a serious chronic disorder that can cause many harmful health effects over time. If you are an adult over the age of 20, you should have your blood pressure checked by your healthcare provider at your regular health visit. If you are over the age of 40, it’s important to have your blood pressure checked annually. Remember, the reading you get from a manual machine or at the pharmacy may not be accurate.
Detecting high blood pressure early can prompt you to make healthy changes in your diet and lifestyle that will reduce your risk of serious disorders like stroke or heart attack. If you fall in a high-risk category, have your blood pressure checked today.
There are four things you need to do every day to lower high blood sugar:
- Eat healthy food
- Get regular exercise
- Take your diabetes medicine
- Test your blood sugar
If you have diabetes, you should try to keep your blood sugar level as close as possible to that of someone who doesn’t have diabetes. This may not be possible or right for everyone. Check with your doctor about what the right range of blood sugar is for you.
You will get plenty of help in learning how to do this from your health care team, which is made up of your doctor, nurses, and dietitian.
Bring a family member or friend with you when you see your doctor. Ask lots of questions. Before you leave, be sure you understand everything you need to know about taking care of your diabetes.
Eat Healthy Food
The foods on your diabetes eating plan are the same ones that are good for everyone. Try to stick to things that are low in fat, salt, and sugar and high in fibre, like beans, fruits, vegetables, and grains.
- Eating right will help you:
- Reach and stay at a weight that is good for you
- Keep your blood sugar in a good range
- Prevent heart and blood vessel disease
Ask your doctor for the name of a dietitian who can work with you on an eating plan for you and your family. Your dietitian can help you plan meals with foods that you and your family like and that are good for you.
If You Use Insulin
- Give yourself an insulin shot.
- Eat about the same amount of food each day at about the same time.
- Don’t skip meals, especially if you’ve already given yourself an insulin shot. Your blood sugar may go too low.
If You Don’t Use Insulin
- Follow your meal plan.
- Don’t skip meals, especially if you take diabetes pills. Your blood sugar may go too low.
- Skipping a meal can make you eat too much at the next meal. It may be better to eat several small meals each day instead of one or two big ones.
Get Regular Exercise
- Being active each day is good for everyone. Good ways to do it include:
- Playing sports
- Cleaning your house or working in your garden count, too.
- Getting active is especially good for people with diabetes because:
- It helps keep your weight down.
- Your insulin may lower your blood sugar more easily.
- It helps your heart and lungs work better.
Exercise gives you more energy.
Before you start, talk with your doctor. If you have high blood pressure or eye problems, some exercises, like weightlifting, may not be safe. Your doctor or nurse will help you find safe exercises.
Try to exercise at least three times a week for about 30 to 45 minutes each time. If you haven’t been active in a while, ease in. Start with 5 to 10 minutes, then work up from there.
If you haven’t eaten for more than an hour or if your blood sugar level is less than 100-120, have something like an apple or a glass of milk before you exercise.
When you’re being active, carry a snack with you in case your blood sugar drops. Make sure to carry an identification tag or card that says you have diabetes.
If You Use Insulin
- Exercise after eating, not before.
- Test your blood sugar before, during, and after. Don’t exercise when it’s higher than 240.
- Avoid exercise right before you sleep. It could cause low blood sugar during the night.
If You Don’t Use Insulin
- See your doctor before starting an exercise program.
- Test your blood sugar before and after exercising if you take diabetes pills. You want it no lower than 70 or no higher than 240.
Take Your Diabetes Medicine Every Day
Insulin and diabetes pills and shots are the kinds of medicines used to lower blood sugar. These can include:
Exenatide Extended Release (Bydureon)
If You Need Insulin
This is you if your body has stopped making insulin or if it doesn’t make enough. Everyone with insulin-dependent diabetes (or type 1 diabetes) needs insulin, and many people with type 2 diabetes also need it.
Insulin can’t be taken as a pill. You will have to give yourself shots every day. Some people give themselves one a day. Some people give themselves two or more a day. Never skip a shot, even if you are sick.
Insulin is injected with a needle. Your doctor will tell you what kind of insulin to use, how much, and when to give yourself a shot. Talk to your doctor before changing the type or amount of insulin you use or when you give your shots. Your doctor or the diabetes educator will show you how to draw up insulin in the needle. They’ll also show you the best places on your body to give yourself a shot. Ask someone to help you with your shots if your hands are shaky or you can’t see well.
Good places on your body for a shot are:
- The outside part of your upper arms
- Around your waist and hips
- The outside part of your upper legs
- Avoid areas with scars and stretch marks.
- Ask your doctor or nurse to check your skin where you give your shots.
At first, you may be a little afraid to give yourself a shot. But most people find that the shots hurt less than they expected. The needles are small and sharp and do not go deep into your skin. Always use your own needles, and never share them with anyone else.
Your doctor or diabetes educator will tell you how to throw away used needles safely.
Keep extra insulin in your refrigerator in case you break the bottle you’re using. Don’t keep insulin in the freezer or in hot places like your glove compartment. Also, keep it away from bright light. Too much heat, cold, or bright light can damage insulin.
If your body makes insulin but it doesn’t lower your blood sugar, you may have to take diabetes pills or some other injectable. These only work in people who have some insulin of their own. Some are taken once a day, and others are taken more often. Ask your doctor when you should take yours.
Diabetes medications are safe and easy to take. Be sure to tell your doctor if yours make you feel bad or if you have any other problems.
Remember, you’ll still have to follow an eating plan and exercise to help lower your blood sugar.
Sometimes, people who take diabetes pills may need insulin shots for a while. This may happen if you get very sick, need to go to a hospital, or become pregnant. You may also need them if the diabetes pills no longer lower your blood sugar.
You may be able to stop taking diabetes pills if you lose weight. Losing even a little bit can help lower your blood sugar.
If You Don’t Use Insulin or Take Diabetes Pills
Everyone with diabetes needs to follow their doctor’s advice about eating and getting enough exercise.
Test Your Blood Sugar Every Day
You need to know how well you are taking care of your diabetes. You need to know if you are lowering your blood sugar. The best way to find out is to test your blood. If it has too much or too little sugar in it, your doctor may need to change your eating, exercise, or medicine plan.
Some people test their blood once a day. Others do it three or four times a day. Your doctor may want you to test before eating, before bed, and sometimes in the middle of the night. Ask your doctor how often and when you should test your blood sugar.
How to Test Your Blood Sugar
You need a small needle called a lancet. You also need special blood testing strips that come in a bottle. Your doctor or diabetes educator will show you how to test your blood. Here are the basic steps to follow:
Depending on your monitoring device, prick your finger or another area of your body with the lancet to get a drop of blood.
Place the blood on the end of the strip.
Put the strip into the meter. The meter will display a number for your blood sugar, like 128.
Pricking your finger with a lancet may hurt a little. It’s like sticking your finger with a pin. Use the lancet only once, and be careful when you throw away used ones. Ask your doctor or nurse how to get rid of them safely.
You can buy lancets, strips, and meters at a drugstore. Ask your doctor or diabetes educator for advice on what kind to buy. Take your blood testing items with you when you see your doctor or nurse so that you can learn how to use them the right way.
Other Tests for Your Diabetes
Urine Tests: You may need to test your urine or blood for ketones when you are sick or if your blood sugar is over 240 before eating a meal. Your body makes ketones when there is not enough insulin in your blood. They can make you very sick.
You can buy strips for testing urine ketones at a drugstore. Also, some blood glucose meters can detect ketones with specialized strips. Your doctor or diabetes educator will show you how to use testing monitors correctly.
Call your doctor right away if you find ketones when you test. You may have something called ketoacidosis. If not treated, it can cause death.
Signs of ketoacidosis are:
- Fast breathing
- A sweet smell on the breath
NOTE: Ketoacidosis is more likely to happen in people with insulin-dependent diabetes.
The Haemoglobin A1c Test: This shows what your average blood sugar was for the past 3 months. It shows how much sugar is sticking to your red blood cells. The doctor does this test to see what level your blood sugar is most of the time.
To do the test, the doctor or nurse takes a sample of your blood. The blood is tested in a laboratory. The laboratory sends the results to your doctor.
See your doctor for a haemoglobin A1c test every 3 months.
Keep Daily Records
Write down the results of your blood tests every day in a record book or notebook. You may also want to include what you eat, how you feel, and how much you’ve exercised.
By keeping daily records of your blood and urine tests, you can tell how well you are taking care of your diabetes. Show your book to your doctor. She can use your records to see if you need to make changes in your insulin shots or diabetes pills or in your eating plan. Ask your doctor or nurse if you don’t know what your test results mean.
Things to write down every day in your notebook are:
- If you had very low blood sugar
- If you ate more or less food than you usually do
- If you felt sick or very tired
- What kind of exercise you did and for how long
Controlling blood pressure and losing weight can make a difference
A study published in The Lancet called INTERSTROKE confirmed that people can reduce their risk of having a stroke by making lifestyle changes. The study found that modifiable risk factors are responsible for 88 percent of stroke risk. The excellent news here is the “modifiable” part of the equation — most of these factors can be completely avoided, or at least modified.
That’s great, you say until you look at the list. Most of us know that stopping smoking and losing weight are no-brainers for improving your health, and many of us would have done these things years ago if we knew how to go about it strategically. Learning how important lifestyle changes are for reducing stroke risk can be motivational.
Major health improvements can be made if the goals are specific, measurable, attainable, realistic and time-based, also known as S.M.A.R.T. goals for lifestyle change.
Here are the top 10 ways to cut your risk of stroke by almost 90 percent.
- Control Your Blood Pressure
While there are medications to control hypertension (high blood pressure), lifestyle change is a key component of keeping blood pressure down. Following the DASH Diet and avoiding salt can help.
- Stop Smoking
Smoking not only increases the risk of stroke, it is estimated to subtract 10 years from one’s lifespan. Getting tips, strategies, stories, and encouragement from people who have successfully quit smoking can be inspirational. And if that doesn’t help, consider how smoking results in premature aging.
- Lose Weight, Especially Around Your Abdomen
You might be surprised at how easy it is to incorporate easy weight loss methods into your life. Not only can you find yourself dropping pounds, but by slowing down and being more mindful of your food, you may also find yourself enjoying meals much more.
- Manage Your Diabetes
People with diabetes are at a higher risk of stroke than the general population. This risk is much higher when the diabetes is poorly-managed and blood glucose levels are elevated over long periods. It is important to take your diabetes seriously (even if you don’t feel “bad” from high blood sugar), which involves sticking to your treatment strategies, among other things. This will not only go a long way in reducing your risk of stroke but also will help bring down the likelihood of other complications.
- Get Active
We know we should be exercising, but many of us simply don’t like it and when you don’t like to do something, it is very easy to find lots of excuses not to do it. Instead of starting from a place of trying to do something you simply hate to do, why don’t you wipe the slate clean and look at exercise from a new perspective? Learn to like, even love, exercise, and it will be much easier to commit to an exercise habit.
- Improve Your Diet
There are many opinions about what exactly constitutes a healthy diet, which often leaves the average person confused to the point that they give up. However, there are some things that are pretty universal here — more vegetables, less trans fats, fewer trips through fast food restaurants. Add fruit to increase your longevity and adopt an overall longevity diet plan.
- Limit Alcohol, Avoid Binge Drinking
Clearly, drinking heavily is bad for your health, but much research shows that two or fewer drinks per day can be good for you, especially red wine. Any more than that starts working against you and harming your health. Heavy drinking also increases stroke risk by 45 percent and there is a link between alcohol and brain aging.
- Improve Your Good Cholesterol
The idea here is to improve your HDL (good cholesterol) to LDL (bad cholesterol) ratio more HDL and less LDL is the idea. The goal is to have your HDL/LDL ratio above 0.3, with the ideal being above 0.4. Of course, there are medications, such as statins, that can help you do this, but there are some lifestyle changes to be made as well, even fun ones, such as eating more dark chocolate or fish.
- Manage Heart Disease
As we age, our hearts have to adapt to our changing bodies our arteries lose flexibility, our heart walls thicken and it becomes harder for our hearts to keep up with increased demand. All of these things (and others) are made worse when we have heart diseases, such as coronary artery disease, angina or other problems that can lead to heart attacks. There are several approaches to managing heart disease, which involves medications, diet, and exercise many of the same things that will also reduce the risk of stroke.
- Avoid Stress, Treat Depression
We know that we feel worse when we are “stressed,” but there is also significant evidence that stress impacts the frequency of negative health events, like a stroke. Depression also has serious physical consequences and can lead to victims neglecting their health.
By taking steps to improve in these areas, you will no doubt feel better along the way. In addition to reducing your risk for stroke, you will also reduce your risk of heart attacks.
Written By: Cure HBP
Drugs that treat high blood pressure are either short-acting or long-acting. The former won’t control blood pressure throughout the day. To do this, you have to increase the dosage or take it several times a day.
In contrast, long-acting drugs can control your blood pressure much longer much longer or as much as 24 hours. You simply take one tablet at the prescribed time each day and get on with your life.
At first, doctors thought it didn’t matter whether you took one or the other. After all, both of these drugs lowered blood so what more could a physician ask?
However, recent studies show that not all antihypertensive can protect you from the complications of hypertension even if they lower blood pressure. While short-acting agents can make your blood pressure drop, the effects of these drugs vary greatly throughout the day – like a Ping-Pong ball bouncing up and down. Obviously, that’s to be expected when you’re playing Ping-Pong – but not when you’re treating hypertension.
These concerns were aired during the 16th Scientific Meeting of the International Society of Hypertension (ISH) in Glasgow in the United Kingdom. Dr. John P. Chalmers, ISH president, said the “Ping-Pong effect could lead to a rapid fall in blood pressure (hypotension), tachycardia (rapid heart beat), and other cardiac problems.
The same view is shared by Dr. Henry L. Elliot of the Department of Medicine and Therapeutics at the Gardiner Institute in Glasgow who said that short-acting drugs don’t seem to offer any protection against overnight hypertension and the subsequent rise in cardiovascular risk during the waking and early working part of the day.
This is bad news for people with hypertension since those with greater blood pressure (BP) variability appear to be at higher risk for end-organ damage, according to Dr. Gianfranco Parati, associate professor of cardiology at the University of Milan in Italy. Parati said that the more your BP varies throughout the day, the greater your chances of suffering from cardiovascular complications.
To avoid this problem, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) said that drugs used to treat hypertension should not only lower BP but, more importantly, prevent fluctuations in BP which appear to be related to cardiovascular complications.
Because of their limited effects, short-acting drugs don’t meet these criteria. The FDA also warned against the use of high doses of short-acting antihypertensive to maintain smooth blood pressure levels for 24 hours since this could counteract the benefits of lower pressure.
Experts say the ideal antihypertensive should be long-acting with a continuous therapeutic effect that can be given once a day yet control BP for 24 hours before the next dose is taken. This will ensure that your BP levels remain stable throughout the day.
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